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Safe Cooking Temperatures: Pork

posted in Reference Charts by Kathy Maister

The following is from the United States Department of Agriculture:

For safety, the USDA recommends cooking ground pork patties and ground pork mixtures such as meat loaf to 160°F (70°C).

Whole muscle meats such as chops and roasts should be cooked to

  • 160 °F (70°C) medium
  • 170 °F (75°C) well done

For approximate cooking times for use in meal planning, see the attached chart compiled from various resources. Times are based on starting with pork at refrigerator temperature (40 °F – 4.5 °C).

Remember that appliances and outdoor grills can vary in heat. Use a meat thermometer to check for safe cooking and “doneness” of pork.

If fresh pork has reached 160 °F (70°C) throughout, it should be safe, even though it may still be pink in the center. The pink color can be due to the cooking method or added ingredients.

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Pork_from_Farm_to_Table/index.asp

http://startcooking.com/public/Pork-Cuts.jpg

Safe Cooking Chart for Pork

ROASTING:

  • Set oven at 350 °F (180° C, Gas Mark 4).
  • Roast in a shallow pan, uncovered.
  • Internal temperature: 160° F (70°C) – medium; 170°F (75°C) – well done.

Or try Startcooking.com’s photo-tutorial on Pork Roast

Cut

Thickness or Weight

Cooking Time

Loin Roast, Bone-in or Boneless

2 to 5 pounds

20-30 minutes per pound

Crown Roast

4 to 6 pounds

20-30 minutes per pound

Leg, (Fresh Ham) Whole, Bone-in

12 to 16 pounds

22-26 minutes per pound

Leg, (Fresh Ham) Half, Bone-in

5 to 8 pounds

35-40 minutes per pound

Boston Butt

3 to 6 pounds

45 minutes per pound

Tenderloin (Roast at 425-450 °F)

½ to 1½ pounds

20 to 30 minutes total

Ribs (Back, Country-style or Spareribs)

2 to 4 pounds

1½ to 2 hours (or until fork tender)

BROILING 4 inches from heat or GRILLING

Cut

Thickness or Weight

Cooking Time

Loin Chops, Bone-in or Boneless

¾-inch or 1½ inches

6-8 minutes or 12-16 minutes

Tenderloin

½ to 1½ pounds

15 to 25 minutes

Ribs (indirect heat), all types

2 to 4 pounds

1½ to 2 hours

Ground Pork Patties (direct heat)

½ inch

8 to 10 minutes

IN SKILLET ON STOVE

Cut

Thickness or Weight

Cooking Time

Loin Chops or Cutlets

¼-inch or ¾-inch

3-4 minutes or 7-8 minutes

Tenderloin Medallions

¼ to ½-inch

4 to 8 minutes

Ground Pork Patties

½ inch

8 to 10 minutes

BRAISING: Cover and simmer with a liquid.

Cut

Thickness or Weight

Cooking Time

Chops, Cutlets, Cubes, Medallions

¼ to 1-inch

10 to 25 minutes

Boston Butt, Boneless

3 to 6 pounds

2 to 2½ hours

Ribs, all types

2 to 4 pounds

1½ to 2 hours

STEWING: Cover pan; simmer, covered with liquid.

Cut

Thickness or Weight

Cooking Time

Ribs, all types

2 to 4 pounds

2 to 2½ hours, or until tender

Cubes

1-inch

45 to 60 minutes

NOTE: Cooking times compiled from various resources. Source: USDA Last modified – February 2003

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Safe Cooking Temperatures: Beef

posted in Meat, Poultry and Seafood, Reference Charts by Kathy Maister

The following is from the United States Department of Agriculture:

For safety, the USDA recommends cooking hamburgers and ground beef mixtures such as meat loaf to 160°F (70°C) on a meat thermometer. However, “whole muscle” meats such as steaks and roasts may be cooked to approximately

  • 145 °F (60° C) medium rare
  • 160 °F (70° C) medium
  • 175 °F (75° C) well done

For approximate cooking times for use in meal planning, see the following chart compiled from various resources. Cooking times are based on starting with beef at refrigerator temperature (40 °F). Remember that appliances and outdoor grills can vary in heat. Use a meat thermometer to check for safe cooking and “doneness” of beef.

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Beef_from_Farm_to_Table/index.asp


http://startcooking.com/public/Beef-Cuts eric.jpg

Cow Drawing Source: Wikipedia

Approximate Beef Cooking Times

Type of Beef

Size

Cooking Method

Cooking Time

Internal Temperature

Rib Roast, bone in

4 to 6 lbs.

Roast 325° F (165° C)

23-25 min./lb.

Medium rare 145°F (60°C)

Rib Roast, boneless rolled

4 to 6 lbs.

Roast 325°F (165°C)

Add 5-8 min./lb. to times above

Same as above

Chuck Roast, Brisket

3 to 4 lbs.

*Braise 325°F (165°C)

*Braise 325°F (165°C)

Medium 160° F (70°C)

Round or Rump Roast

2 1/2 to 4 lbs.

Roast 325°F (165°C)

30-35 min./lb.

Medium rare 145°F (60°C)

Tenderloin, whole

4 to 6 lbs.

Roast 425°

45-60 min. total

Medium rare 145°F (60°C)

Steaks

3/4″ thick

Broil/Grill

4-5 min. per side

Medium rare 145°F (60°C)

Stew or Shank Cross Cuts

1 to 1 1/2″ thick

Cover with liquid; simmer

2 to 3 hours

Medium 160°F (70°C)

Short Ribs

4″ long and 2″ thick

*Braise 325°F (165°C)

1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours

Medium 160°F (70°C)

*Braising is roasting or simmering less-tender meats with a small amount of liquid in a tightly covered pan.

Source: USDA Last modified – February 2003

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Safe Cooking Temperatures: Chicken

posted in Meat, Poultry and Seafood, Reference Charts by Kathy Maister

The following is from the United States Department of Agriculture:

“Cook a whole chicken to a safe minimum internal temperature of 165 °F
(75 °C) as measured using a food thermometer. Check the internal temperature in the innermost part of the thigh and wing and the thickest part of the breast. For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to cook poultry to higher temperatures.

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Chicken_Food_Safety_Focus/index.asp

Approximate Chicken Cooking Times

Type of Chicken

Weight

Roasting 350°F (180 °C)

Simmering

Grilling

Whole broiler fryer+

3 to 4 lbs.

1 1/4 – 1 1/2 hrs.

60 to 75 min.

60 to 75 min*

Whole roasting hen+

5 to 7 lbs.

2 to 2 1/4 hrs.

1 3/4 to 2 hrs.

18-25 min/lb*

Whole capon+

4 to 8 lbs.

2 to 3 hrs

Not suitable

15-20 min/lb*

Whole Cornish hens+

18-24 oz.

50 to 60 min.

35 to 40 min.

45 to 55 min*

Breast halves, bone-in

6 to 8 oz.

30 to 40 min.

35 to 45 min.

10 – 15 min/side

Breast half, boneless

4 ounces

20 to 30 min.

25 to 30 min.

6 to 8 min/side

Legs or thighs

8 or 4 oz.

40 to 50 min.

40 to 50 min.

10 – 15 min/side

Drumsticks

4 ounces

35 to 45 min.

40 to 50 min.

8 to 12 min/side

Wings or wingettes

2 to 3 oz.

30 to 40 min.

35 to 45 min.

8 to 12 min/side

+ Unstuffed. If stuffed, add 15 to 30 minutes additional time.

* Indirect method using drip pan.

Source: USDA Last Modified: April 4, 2006”

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